Õppige Bootstrap 4 30 minutiga, ehitades sihtlehe veebisaidi

Juhend algajatele

„Bootstrap on tasuta avatud lähtekoodiga esioteraamatukogu veebisaitide ja veebirakenduste kujundamiseks. See sisaldab HTML- ja CSS-põhiseid kujundusmalle kõigest tüpograafiast, vormidest, nuppudest, navigeerimis- ja muudest liidese komponentidest ning JavaScripti laiendustest. Erinevalt paljudest teistest veebiraamistikest hoolitseb Bootstrap end ainult eesseadmete arendamise eest. " - Wikipedia

Bootstrapil on palju versioone, uusim versioon 4. Selles artiklis ehitame veebisaidi Bootstrap 4 abil.

Eeldused

Enne alustamist peate Bootstrapi raamistiku õppimiseks ja kasutamiseks teadma mõningaid oskusi:

  • HTML-i põhialused
  • põhiteadmised CSS-ist
  • ja mõned põhilised JQuery

Sisukord

Veebisaidi loomisel käsitleme allpool olevaid teemasid:

  • Bootstrapi allalaadimine ja installimine 4
  • Bootstrap 4 uued funktsioonid
  • Bootstrap Grid süsteem
  • Navbar
  • Päis
  • Nööbid
  • Teave jaotise kohta
  • Portfelliosa
  • Blogi jaotis
  • Kaardid
  • Meeskonna sektsioon
  • Kontaktivorm
  • Fondid
  • Kerimisefekt
  • Kokkuvõte ja järeldus

Bootstrapi allalaadimine ja installimine 4

Bootstrap 4 installimiseks ja kaasamiseks oma projekti on kolm võimalust:

  1. Kasutage npm

Bootstrap 4 saate installida selle käsu käivitamisega npm install bootstrap

2. Kasutage sisuvõrku (CDN)

Lisades selle lingi oma projekti pealkirjade vahele:

3. Laadige alla Bootstrap 4 teek ja kasutage seda kohapeal.

Meie projekti struktuur peaks välja nägema selline:

Bootstrap 4 uued funktsioonid

Mida uut on Bootstrap 4-s? Ja mis on Bootstrap 3 ja 4 erinev?

Bootstrap 4-l on nüüd mõned suurepärased funktsioonid, mida viimases versioonis polnud:

  • Bootstrap 4 kirjutatakse Flexbox Gridiga, Bootstrap 3 aga float-meetodil.

    Kui olete Flexboxi kasutaja alles, vaadake seda õpetust.

  • Bootstrap 4 kasutab remCSS-i üksusi, Bootstrap 3 aga px.

    Vaadake, kuidas need kaks ühikut erinevad.

  • Paneelid, pisipildid ja kaevud on täielikult maha visatud.

    Bootstrap 4 globaalsete muudatuste ja eemaldatud funktsioonide kohta saate üksikasjalikumalt lugeda siit.

Siinkohal liiga sügavale detailidesse hüppamata, liigume mõne muu olulise asja juurde.

Bootstrap Grid süsteem

Bootstrap Grid süsteem aitab teil luua oma paigutuse ja hõlpsasti luua tundliku veebisaidi. Klasside nimedes pole muudatusi olnud, välja arvatud .xsklass, mida Bootstrap 4-s enam ei eksisteeri.

Ruudustik on jagatud 12 veeruks, seega põhineb teie paigutus sellel.

Et kasutada grid süsteemi teil lisada .rowklassi peamiste div .

col-lg-2 // class used for large devices like laptops col-md-2 // class used for medium devices like tablets col-sm-2// class used for small devices like mobile phones

Navbar

Navbar-ümbris on Bootstrap 4-s üsna lahe. See on nii kasulik, kui on vaja reageerivat navbar-i üles ehitada.

Selle saamiseks lisame navbarklassi oma index.htmlfaili:

  Home 
    
  • About
  • Portfolio
  • Blog
  • Team
  • Contact

Looge ja lisage main.cssfail, et saaksite CSS-i stiili kohandada.

Pange see headoma index.htmlfaili märgendi sisse :

Lisame mõned värvid meie navbarile:

.navbar{ background:#F97300;} .nav-link , .navbar-brand{ color: #f4f4f4; cursor: pointer;} .nav-link{ margin-right: 1em !important;} .nav-link:hover{ background: #f4f4f4; color: #f97300; } .navbar-collapse{ justify-content: flex-end;} .navbar-toggler{ background:#fff !important;}

The new Bootstrap Grid is built with the Flexbox system, so for alignment, you have to use a Flexbox property. For example, to place the navbar menu on the right we need to add a justify-content property and set it to flex-end.

.navbar-collapse{ justify-content: flex-end; }

Add the .fixed-top class to the navbar to give it a fixed position.

To make the navbar background color light, add .bg-light. For a dark background, add .bg-dark, and for a light blue background, add

.bg-primary.

Here’s how that should look:

.bg-dark{ background-color:#343a40!important } .bg-primary{ background-color:#007bff!important }

Header

Let’s try and create a layout for the header.

Here, we want to make sure the header takes up the window’s height so we are going to use a little JQuery code.

First, create a file named main.js and include it in the index.htmlfilebefore the closing body tag:

In the main.jsfile insert this a little code of JQuery:

$(document).ready(function(){ $('.header').height($(window).height()); })

It’d be pretty cool if we set a nice background image to the header:

/*header style*/ .header{ background-image: url('../images/headerback.jpg'); background-attachment: fixed; background-size: cover; background-position: center; }

Let’s add an overlay to make the header look a bit more professional:

Add this to your index.html file:

Then, add this to your main.css file:

.overlay{ position: absolute; min-height: 100%; min-width: 100%; left: 0; top: 0; background: rgba(244, 244, 244, 0.79); }

Now we have to add a description inside the header.

To wrap our description we’re first going to create a div and give it a class .container.

.container is a Bootstrap class that will help you to wrap your content and make your layout more responsive:

Then, add another div which will contain the description.

Hello ,Welcome To My official Website

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See more

We’ll give it a class of .description and add the .text-center class to make sure the content is placed in the center of the page.

Buttons

Add the class .btn btn-outline-secondary to the button element. there are many other Bootstrap classes for buttons.

Check some examples:

CodePen Embed — buttons in Bootstrap 4

Buttons Button primary Button default Button danger Button info Button warning Button dark Button success Buttons…codepen.io

Here’s how the styling for the .description looks in the main.css file:

.description{ position: absolute; top: 30%; margin: auto; padding: 2em; } .description h1{ color:#F97300 ; } .description p{ color:#666; font-size: 20px; width: 50%; line-height: 1.5; } .description button{ border:1px solid #F97300; background:#F97300; color:#fff; }

After all of that, our header will look like this:

Cool isn’t :).

About Section

In this section, we will use some Bootstrap Grid to divide the section into two parts.

To start our grid, we have to assign the.rowclass to the parent div.

The first section will be on the left and will contain a picture, the second section will be on the right and contain a description.

Each div will take up 6 columns — that means half of the section. Remember that a grid is divided into 12 columns.

In the first div on the left side:

 // left side  S.Web Developer 

After adding the the HTML elements on the right-side, the structure of the code will look like this:

 S.Web Developer 

D.John

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Here’s how I’ve made it look:

.about{ margin: 4em 0; padding: 1em; position: relative; } .about h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .about img{ height: 100%; width: 100%; border-radius: 50% } .about span{ display: block; color: #888; position: absolute; left: 115px; } .about .desc{ padding: 2em; border-left:4px solid #10828C; } .about .desc h3{ color: #10828C; } .about .desc p{ line-height:2; color:#888; }

Portfolio Section

Now, let’s move onto the next bit and make a portfolio section that will contain a gallery.

The structure of our HTML code for the Portfolio section looks like this:

Portfolio

Adding .img-fluid to each image to makes it responsive.

Each item in our gallery will take up 4 columns (remember, col-md-4 for medium devices, col-lg-4 for large devices). That’s equal to 33.33333%on large devices such desktops and large tablets, and 12 columns on a small device (like iPhone, mobile devices) will take up 100% of the container.

Let’s add some styling to our Gallery:

/*Portfolio*/ .portfolio{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .portfolio h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .portfolio img{ height: 15rem; width: 100%; margin: 1em; }

Blog Section

Cards

Cards in Bootstrap 4 make blog design so much easier. The cards are appropriate for articles and posts.

To create a card, we use the class .cardand assign it to a div element,

The card class contains many features:

  • .card-header: define the card header
  • .card-body:for the card body
  • .card-title: the title of the card
  • card-footer:define the footer of the card.
  • .card-image: for the card’s image

So, our website’s HTML should now look something like this:

Blog

Post Title

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Read more

Post Title

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Read more

Post Title

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Read more

We need to add some CSS style to the cards:

.blog{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .blog h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .blog .card{ box-shadow: 0 0 20px #ccc; } .blog .card img{ width: 100%; height: 12em; } .blog .card-title{ color:#F97300; } .blog .card-body{ padding: 1em; }

After adding the Blog section to our website, the design should now look something like this:

Cool isn’t it? ?

Team Section

In this section we will use the grid system to distribute even space between images. Each image takes up 3 columns (.col-md-3) of the container — that equals 25% of the total space.

Our HTML structure:

Our Team

Sara Manager Chris S.enginner Layla Front End Developer J.Jirard Team Manger

And let’s add some style:

.team{ margin: 4em 0; position: relative; } .team h1{ color:#F97300; margin: 2em; } .team .item{ position: relative; } .team .des{ background: #F97300; color: #fff; text-align: center; border-bottom-left-radius: 93%; transition:.3s ease-in-out; }

Adding an overlay to the image on-hover using animation would be nice ?.

To make this effect , add the styles below to main.css file:

.team .item:hover .des{ height: 100%; background:#f973007d; position: absolute; width: 89%; padding: 5em; top: 0; border-bottom-left-radius: 0; }

Super cool! ?

Contact Form

The Contact Form is the last section to add, then we are done ?.

The Contact Form section will contain a form through which visitors can send an email or give feedback. We will use some Bootstrap classes to make the design beautiful and responsive.

Like Bootstrap 3, Bootstrap 4 also uses the .form-control class for input fields, but there are some new features added — like switching from .input-group-addon(deprecated) to .input-group-prepend(to use icons as labels ).

See Bootstrap 4 document for more information. In our Contact form we will wrap each input between a div that has the class.form-group.

The index.html file now looks something like this:

Get in Touch

Contact section’styles :

main.css

.contact-form{ margin: 6em 0; position: relative; } .contact-form h1{ padding:2em 1px; color: #F97300; } .contact-form .right{ max-width: 600px; } .contact-form .right .btn-secondary{ background: #F97300; color: #fff; border:0; } .contact-form .right .form-control::placeholder{ color: #888; font-size: 16px; }

Fonts

I think default fonts are ugly so we are going to use the Google Font API, and we’ll choose Raleway which is a nice font and appropriate to our template.

Add this link into your main.css file:

@import url('//fonts.googleapis.com/css?family=Raleway');

and set the global style to HTML and heading tags:

html,h1,h2,h3,h4,h5,h6,a{ font-family: "Raleway"; }

Scroll Effect

The last thing missing is scroll effect. Here, we’ll have to use some JQuery. Don’t worry️ if you are not familiar with it, just add this code into yourmain.jsfile:

$(".navbar a").click(function(){ $("body,html").animate({ scrollTop:$("#" + $(this).data('value')).offset().top },1000) })

and add a data-value attribute to each navbar link:

  • About
  • Portfolio
  • Blog
  • Team
  • Contact
  • Set an id attribute to each section.

    Märkus . Kerimise toimimiseks idpeavad need olema identsed data-valuenaviriba lingi atribuudiga:

    Kokkuvõte ja järeldus

    Bootstrap 4 on suurepärane võimalus veebirakenduse loomiseks. See tagab kasutajaliidese elementide kõrge kvaliteedi ning seda on lihtne kohandada, integreerida ja kasutada. Samuti aitab see teil lisada oma veebisaidile reageerimisvõime, pakkudes seega oma kasutajatele esmaklassilist kasutuskogemust.

    Projekti failid leiate GitHubist.

    Kui vajate mõnda Bootstrapi teemat ja malli, saate tutvuda BootstrapBayga, neil on mõned suurepärased tooted

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