Parimad HTML- ja HTML5-õpetused

HyperText Markup Language (HTML) on märgistuskeel, mida kasutatakse veebidokumentide koostamiseks ja mis on tänapäeval enamiku veebisaitide alus. Märgistuskeel nagu HTML võimaldab meil seda teha

  • luua linke teistele dokumentidele,
  • struktureerida meie dokumendi sisu ja
  • omistage meie dokumendi sisule kontekst ja tähendus.

HTML-dokumendil on kaks aspekti. See sisaldab struktureeritud teavet (Markup) ja tekstilinke (HyperText) teistele dokumentidele. Struktureerime oma lehed HTML-elementide abil. Need on keelekonstruktsioonid, mis pakuvad meie dokumendis brauseri jaoks struktuuri ja tähendust ning elemendi lingid Internetis teistele dokumentidele.

Internet loodi algselt staatiliste (muutumatute) dokumentide hoidmiseks ja esitamiseks. Eespool käsitletud HTML-i aspekte nähti nendes dokumentides suurepäraselt, kus puudus igasugune kujundus ja stiil. Nad esitasid struktureeritud teavet, mis sisaldas linke teistele dokumentidele.

HTML5 on HTML-i uusim versioon või spetsifikatsioon. Ülemaailmne veebikonsortsium (W3C) on organisatsioon, mis vastutab ülemaailmse veebi standardite, sealhulgas HTML-i väljatöötamise eest. Veebilehtede ja veebirakenduste keerukamaks muutudes uuendab W3C HTML-i standardeid.

HTML5 tutvustab hulgaliselt semantilisi elemente. Kuigi me arutasime, kuidas HTML aitas meie dokumendil tähendust anda, realiseeriti selle potentsiaal alles HTML5-de semantiliste elementide kasutuselevõtul.

Lihtne näide HTML-dokumendist

   Page Title   

My First Heading

My first paragraph.

! DOCTYPE html: määratleb selle dokumendi HTML5-ks

html: HTML-lehe juurelement

head: element sisaldab metainfot dokumendi kohta

pealkiri: element määrab dokumendi pealkirja

body: Element sisaldab nähtava lehe sisu

h1: element määratleb suure pealkirja

p: Element määratleb lõigu

Õpetused HTML-i ja HTML5-ga alustamiseks

Parim koht HTML-i õppimise alustamiseks on freeCodeCampi 2-tunnine sissejuhatus HTML-i õpetusse.

Siis, kui tunnete end seikluslikumalt, on meil terve 12-tunnine kursus, mis hõlmab üksikasjalikult HTML-i, HTML5-i ja CSS-i.

Lehe struktuur

Oma lehtede loomiseks HTMLpeate teadma, kuidas lehte üles struktureerida HTML. Põhimõtteliselt toimub lehe struktureerimine järgmises järjekorras:

   Title of the Page     

1 - avaldus peab HTMLlehel alati esimesena ilmuma ja ütleb brauserile, millist keeleversiooni kasutatakse. Sellisel juhul teeme koostööd HTML5.

2 - ja sildid ütlevad veebibrauserile, kus HTMLkood algab ja lõpeb.

3 - ja sildid sisaldavad teavet veebisaidi kohta, näiteks: stiil, metasildid, skriptid jne.

4 - ja sildid ütlevad brauserile, mis on lehe pealkiri. Pealkirja saab näha, tuvastades oma Interneti-brauseris vahekaardi. Nende siltide vahel määratletud tekst on ka tekst, mida otsingumootorid kasutavad pealkirjana, kui nad esitavad lehti otsingutulemites.

5 - vahel ja silte lehe sisu pannakse, mis on see, mida kuvatakse brauseri.

Muudatused HTML5-s

Semantiliste siltide tutvustus

Selle asemel, et kasutada iga teise konteineri jaoks, on mitu semantilist (need märgendid aitavad ekraanilugejatel, mida kasutavad nägemispuudega inimesed), näiteks . Seega on soovitatav kasutada neid silte üldiste asemel .

HTML-elemendid

Elemendid on HTML-i ehituskivid, mis kirjeldavad veebilehe struktuuri ja sisu. Need on HyperText Markup Language (HTML) osa „Markup”.

HTML-i süntaks kasutab HTML-elemendi nime hoidmiseks nurksulgusid (””). Elementidel on tavaliselt avamis- ja sulgemismärk ning need annavad teavet neis sisalduva sisu kohta. Nende kahe erinevus seisneb selles, et sulgemissildil on kaldkriips.

Siin on näide p elemendi (

This is a paragraph.

Opening and closing tags should match, otherwise the browser may display content in an unexpected way.

XKCD comic showing the text

Self-closing Elements

Some HTML elements are self-closing, meaning they don’t have a separate closing tag. Self-closing elements typically insert something into your document.

An example is the br element (

), which inserts a line break in text. Formerly, self-closing tags had the forward slash inside them (

HTML Element Functionality

There are many available HTML elements. Here’s a list of some of the functions they perform:

  • give information about the web page itself (the metadata)
  • structure the content of the page into sections
  • embed images, videos, audio clips, or other multimedia
  • create lists, tables, and forms
  • give more information about certain text content
  • link to stylesheets which have rules about how the browser should display the page
  • add scripts to make a page more interactive and dynamic

Nesting HTML Elements

You can nest elements within other elements in an HTML document. This helps define the structure of the page. Just make sure the tags close from the inside-most element first.

Correct:

This is a paragraph that contains a span element.

Incorrect:

This is a paragraph that contains a span element.

Block-level and Inline Elements

Elements come in two general categories, known as block-level and inline. Block-level elements automatically start on a new line while inline elements sit within surrounding content.

Elements that help structure the page into sections, such as a navigation bar, headings, and paragraphs, are typically block-level elements. Elements that insert or give more information about content are generally inline, such as links or images.

The HTML Element

There’s an element that’s used to contain the other markup for an HTML document. It’s also known as the “root” element because it’s the parent of the other HTML elements and the content of a page.

Here’s an example of a page with a head element, a body element, and one paragraph:

I'm a paragraph

The HEAD Element

This is the container for processing information and metadata for an HTML document.

The BODY Element

This is a container for the displayable content of an HTML document.

...

The P Element

Creates a paragraph, perhaps the most common block level element.

...

The A(Link) Element

Creates a hyperlink to direct visitors to another page or resource.

...

Images in HTML

You can define images by using the tag. It does not have a closing tag since it can contain only attributes. To insert an image you define the source and an alternative text which is displayed when the image can not be rendered.

src - This attribute provides the url to the image present either on your P.C./Laptop or to be included from some other website. Remember the link provided should not be broken otherwise the image will not be produced on your webpage.

alt - This attribute is used to overcome the problem of broken image or incapability of your browser to produce image on webpage. This attribute, as the name suggests, provides an “Alternative” to an image which is some ‘TEXT’ describing the image.

Example

To define height and width of an image you can use the height and width attribute:

You can also define border thickness (0 means no border):

Align an image:

You are also able to use styles within a style attribute:

How to use links in HTML

In HTML you can use the tag to create a link. For example you can write freeCodeCamp to create a link to freeCodeCamp’s website.

Links are found in nearly all web pages. Links allow users to click their way from page to page.

HTML links are hyperlinks. You can click on a link and jump to another document.

When you move the mouse over a link, the mouse arrow will turn into a little hand.

Note: A link does not have to be text. It can be an image or any other HTML element.

In HTML, links are defined with the tag:

link text

Example

Visit our site for tutorials

The href attribute specifies the destination address (//www.freecodecamp.org) of the link.

The link text is the visible part (Visit our site for tutorials).

Clicking on the link text will send you to the specified address.

How to Use Lists in HTML

Lists are used to specify a set of consecutive items or related information in a well formed and semantic way, such as a list of ingredients or a list of procedural steps.

HTML markup has three different types of lists - ordered, unordered and description lists.

Ordered Lists

An ordered list is used to group a set of related items, in a specific order. This list is created with

    tag. Each list item is surrounded with
  1. tag.

    Code
    
            
    1. Mix ingredients
    2. Bake in oven for an hour
    3. Allow to stand for ten minutes
    Example
    1. Mix ingredients
    2. Bake in oven for an hour
    3. Allow to stand for ten minutes

    Unordered Lists

    An unordered list is used to group a set of related items, in no particular order. This list is created with

      tag. Each list item is surrounded with
    • tag.

      Code
      
                
      • Chocolate Cake
      • Black Forest Cake
      • Pineapple Cake

      Example

      • Chocolate Cake
      • Black Forest Cake
      • Pineapple Cake

      Description Lists

      A description list is used to specify a list of terms and their descriptions. This list is created with

      tag. Each list item is surrounded with
      tag.

      Code
      
                  
      Bread
      A baked food made of flour.
      Coffee
      A drink made from roasted coffee beans.
      Output

      Bread A baked food made of flour. Coffee A drink made from roasted coffee beans.

      Styling List

      You can also control the style of the list. You can use list-style property of lists. Your list can be bullets, squares, in Roman numerals, or can be images if you want.

      list-style property is shorthand for list-style-type, list-style-position, list-style-image.